ANTIQUE AND EXOTIC APPLES
ADAMS PEARMAIN (a.k.a. Norfolk Pippin) English dessert apple, dating to early 1800s. Skin yellow with considerable light striping, sometimes orange-red blush; light russet network. Medium sized fruits on long slender shoots. Flesh rich, sugary. Considerable tolerance to scab. Precocious and productive.
ALKMENE Very high quality new variety from the Muncheberg (East Germany) breeding program. Ripens early September, shortly before Cox's Orange Pippin.. Crisp, juicy, aromatic. Orange-red skin; medium size. Tree compact, grower-friendly. Scab-tolerant.
ARKANSAS BLACK A fine old variety, one of the best winter-keepers. Found in Benton County, Arkansas about 1870. Bright, crisp yellow flesh; dark red skin. Great flavor. Tough skin, giving it some resistance to codling moth. Resistant to cedar apple rust. Triploid; pollen not viable.
ARLET a.k.a. Swiss Gourmet. Golden Delicious x Idared from Swiss breeding program, introduced in 1981. Medium-smll fruit, bright red over yellow ground. Mild, sweet flavor; quite crisp. Early bearing.
ASHMEAD'S KERNEL One of the finest flavored antiques, high sugar content with good acid balance; crisp yellow flesh. Very intense apple flavor. This is a real connoisseur's variety; no apple variety collection is complete without Ashmead's Kernel!! Medium small fruit, not particularly attractive--greenish yellow skin, rather ugly brown blush. Modest production. Very winter-hardy. Originated in England almost 300 years ago.
BALDWIN Your great-grandma's winter keeper, sometimes called Woodpecker. A fine antique variety, once the most important variety in the Northeast. Originated in Massachusetts 250 years ago. Rich, crisp, juicy eating. Large fruit; bright red skin. Tough enough to survive the barrel-packing of 100 years ago. Excellent keeper. Triploid; pollen sterile. Tends to be biennial bearer.
BELLE DE BOSKOOP Large greenish-yellow fruit. Very strong "apple" flavor. Fairly tart at harvest, mellowing to excellent sugar/acid balance. Outstanding cooker; slices tend to keep shape; makes golden yellow sauce or slices. Fine keeper. High in vitamin C. Late ripening. Triploid; pollen sterile. From Holland, ca. 1850.
BEN DAVIS The famous "mortgage-lifter" of the 1890s. My great-grandad had 40 acres of Bens, sold them mostly to peddlers from the Deep South. In the old days, Bens were packed in 3-bushel barrels; many a bargeload floated down the Mississippi for Memphis and Natchez and points south. Still much in demand by commercial processors for making a Grade A, golden yellow applesauce. Strictly a cooking apple; ideal for drying. Almost uniquely susceptible to apple blotch disease. (See "Ben Davis" in our Stories section-link.)
BLACK GILLIFLOWER (a.k.a. Sheepnose) Connecticut, 1800s. Dark red to almost black. Elongated and conical, dry and pleasant flavor.
BLACK OXFORD High quality winter keeper from Maine. Very dark purplish-red, almost black. Very winter hardy. Said to be tolerant of insects and disease.
BLENHEIM ORANGE Large, yellow-orange to red-orange fruit; aromatic; good flavor. Originated in England before 1750. Tip bearer; productive. Fire blight tolerant.
BLUE PEARMAIN An old English variety that has been successful in Maine and Quebec because of its excellent winter hardiness. Skin very dark purplish red, similar to Black Oxford. Flesh yellowish, rather firm but coarse; fairly juicy. Fruit large; mild-flavored; sweet; aromatic. Keeps all winter. October ripening.
BRAMLEY'S SEEDLING The classic cooker of Britain; makes a pale, creamy sauce with fine tart/sweet balance. Originated in England about 1800. Big acidic fruit; high in vitamin C. Greenish-yellow, with broad reddish-brown striping. Vigorous tree; triploid. Precocious and productive. Excellent keeper.
BURGUNDY Fruit is large, round, very intense pigment, almost blackish red. Solid blush without stripes. Skin is smooth and glossy. Flesh crisp, sub-acid, very good eating quality. Fruits hang well for 3 weeks after harvest ripe. Storage life is short, no more than a month. Tree Characteristics: Susceptible to Cedar-Apple Rust.
CALVILLE BLANC D'HIVER The classic dessert apple of France. Large yellow fruit, flushed with red. Aromatic; strong flavor. Discovered in France in the 1590s. Extremely high levels of Vitamin C. When cooked, slices keep shape. Makes excellent cider. Generally regarded as poor producer, but on dwarfing rootstocks, it has been productive.
CENTENNIAL CRAB Fruit similar to Dolgo but much larger. From the University of Minnesota cross, Wealthy x Dolgo. Genetic semidwarf. Excellent sweet flavor. Scab resistant. Very winter hardy. Good pollenizer.
CHENANGO STRAWBERRY Dates back to the 1840s. Medium-large, long-conic fruit -- "sheepnose" shape. Skin is glowing translucent pale yellow striped with crimson. Excellent dessert quality. Very winter hardy.
CORNISH GILLIFLOWER Old English variety, dating to the 1700s. Unattractive dull green fruit; often russetted. Rich, clove-like flavor; crisp, juicy. Tip bearer. Late fall ripening.
COURT PENDU PLAT Old variety known since 1613, probable origins in Roman times. The name is derived from Corps Pendu, referring to the shortness of the stem. Skin is greenish-yellow becoming flushed with orange-red with short broken stripes. A good cropper with rich, aromatic fruit with a good balance of sugar and acid. Suitable for areas with late spring frost because it blooms very late and is cold hardy.
COURT ROYAL Large, greenish-yellow fruit. Sweet and crisp.
COX'S ORANGE PIPPIN Seedling of Ribston Pippin, fund in early 1800s. Still the favorite apple of the Englishman, Cox has an intense apple flavor -spicy, high sugar + high acid. Flavor is enhances by ripening off the tree. Fruit medium size, dull finish, often with small cracks, sometimes heavily cracked. A challenge to grow, but well worth the effort. Good scab resistance but blight susceptible.
CRIMSON KING Prime cooking apple; also important blender in ciders. Quite tart. Fruit large. Triploid. Productive. Late ripening. .
CROW'S EGG Origin unknown; at least before 1825. Skin bronze blus over pale greenish yellow skin. Large core. White flesh is crisp, tender and juicy. .
DUCHESS OF OLDENBURG Very old Russian variety, hardy to -40F. Probably has been in America since the early 1800s. A major variety for Cummins Orchards back in Southern Illinois when Dad was youn. Early summer ripening. Tart; primarily cooking variety. When ripe, striped with red and a fair eating apple. Very productive, although can turn biennial. Like Ben Davis, susceptible to apple blotch.
EDWARD VII English; Blenheim Orange x Golden Noble. Introduced in 1908. Large green apple; tart.Late flowering, making it suitable for frost-prone sites. Scab-tolerant.
EGREMONT RUSSET This old English variety is truly world class for flavor -- perhaps the very best of all the russets. Dense flesh. Small, golden brown fruit, usually with some black spots. Fine keeper. Considerable scab resistance. Smallish tree; spur bearer. Very winter hardy.
ELLISON'S ORANGE English. Red striped fruit, yellow undercolor. Excellent flavor -- sweet and aromatic. From a Cox's Orange Pippin X Calville Blanc d'Ete cross made y a private breeder about 1900. Considerable scab resisance. Easily turned into biennial bearing.
ELSTAR Golden Delicious x Cox's Orange Pippin from Dutch program. Early autumn apple; very high quality, similar to Jonagold after some off-tree ripening but more acid.
ERWIN BAUER Seedling of Duchess of Oldenburg, but its fine flavor so much resembles Cox's Orange Pippin that Cox is regarded as probable pollen parent. Introduced in eastern Germany in 1955. Firm, crisp, juicy. Ripening late autumn; good keeper.
ESOPUS SPITZENBURG Although Thomas Jefferson made his money from Newtown Pippin, Esopus Spitzenburg was his favorite for eating. Esopus has only been around for about 200 years -- found in the Hudson Valley of New York just before George Washington became our first President. Fruit is medium size, brilliant orange-red, rather conical usually. Rich, spicy flavor, with fine-grained yellowish flesh. Elegant eating from harvest through Christmastime. A willowy tree, with long, slender branches. Ripens unevenly, so 3 or 4 or 5 pickings are required to get prime eating quality. Susceptible to about all the common diseases.
FAMEUSE (a.k.a. SNOW) The ancient Snow apple of Quebec, dating from the early 1700s. Superbly winter hardy. Brilliant white flesh, red-striped skin. Mild flavor. Fruit medium-small, produced on short spurs. Supposed to be Mother of McIntosh.
FREIHERR VON BERLEPSCH Outstanding quality in an ugly skin!! Berlepsch cracks badly; skin surface is scruffy; considerable russet -- but the flavor and texture are world class.
FREYBERG A medium-sized, somewhat unattractive yellow apple. Yellow green with some russeting. Juicy, aromatic, creamy white flesh with firm fine texture. The flavor is a combination of apple, pear, and banana. Has a touch of anise and liquorice. Lightly acidulous and sugary. Blight and scab susceptible.
GILPIN Old Virginia variety, dating back to early 19th century. Excellent cider apple. Yellow skin, usually red-striped. Crisp, juicy. Late blooming. Excellent long-term storage; esteemed as table apple late into the spring.
GOLDEN NUGGET Golden Russet x Cox Orange Pippin. Small, broadly conical, long-stemmed apple, predominantly yellow, streaked and splashed with bright orange. Sometimes netted and spotted with russet. Sugary sweet, rich, luscious, of a most delicious mellow flavor. Short keeping life. Ripens just before Coxs Orange.
GOLDEN PIPPIN Greenish-yellow fruit, ripening to deep golden yellow. Harvest in early September. Cooking and eating out of hand. American origin, about 1800.
GOLDEN RUSSET Regarded by many as the finest-flavored of all the American antiques. Beautiful golden skin covered with a net of russet. Late ripening. Considered the very best cider variety. Good winter-hardiness. Modest production, but we expect to see higher productivity with these rootstocks. Scab-tolerant.
GRANIWINKLE Always considered a first-class cider apple, Graniwinkle is also a wonderful fresh eating apple with a rich, sweet flavor. The apple originated in New Jersey in the early 1800's and was named for the grower who first cultivated it. Fruit is medium-sized with greenish-yellow skin flushed red with mixed dark red stripes and splashes.
GRAVENSTEIN Said to have originated in Italy in early 1600s. Large fruit ; yellow skin, striped or solid blush; flesh yellowish-white. Uneven ripening; fruit tends to drop, so multiple picking required. Especially good for sauce and cider. Major sauce apple for California canners. Tangy sweet flavor. Very vigorous. Tends to be biennial; both spur- and tip-bearing. Triploid.
GRIMES GOLDEN Pure yellow apple with golden yellow flesh. My great grandfather planted 20 acres of Grimes back 90 years ago. Originated in West Virginia during Washington's presidency. Precocious and very productive, but tends to go biennial. Rich, spicy flavor with heavy aroma. Very high sugar content makes Grimes ideal for hard cider. Wonderful fresh cider apple.
HAWAII Gourmet dessert apple with a flavor and aroma like pineapple. Large, yellow fruit with light pinkish orange striping gives overall orange appearance. Exceptionally sweet flavor is largely influenced by Gravenstein.
HAWKEYE (the Original Delicious) This is the legendary apple that old Jessie Hyatt took to Mr. Stark -- the apple that gave rise to a whole new industry. No cardboard here -- the Original really IS Delicious!! No, not beautiful red wax images of apples, but the real thing. Color is typically "buckskin" in the south, red striped in the North.
HOLIDAY High quality late season introduction from Ohio State. Jonathan x Macoun. Bright, shiny red fruit, medium size, ripening just after Golden Delicious.
HOLSTEIN PIPPIN Almost seems a king-sized version of Cox's Orange Pippin (which was its seed parent). Triploid. Very high quality. Grower-friendly tree; considerable tolerance to scab. Ripens about with Delicious.
HUBBARDSTON NONESUCH A great old apple from Massachusetts, dating back to early 19th century. Fruit large, round-conic; skin yellow with red striping. Flesh yellow, crisp; small core. Sweet flavor. Late ripening. Some biennial tendency. Precocious and productive.
HUDSON'S GOLDEN GEM Outstanding dessert apple; very rich, pear-like flavor when well-grown. Medium-sized russetted fruit, usually with many small cracks. Foliage is unusually attractive -- dark, emerald green, very long leaves; scab-tolerant. Fruit hangs well. Small, grower-friendly tree. Generally shy cropper. Fencerow seedling discovered in Oregon in 1931.
IRISH PEACH Chance seedling found in Ireland around 1800. Considered very best of early-ripening apples; thought to be seedling of Yellow Transparent. Skin thin, pale, translucent greenish-yellow, similar to Transparent. Tip-bearer. Upright growth.
ISLE OF WIGHT PIPPIN
JAMES GRIEVE Originated in Scotland in the 1890s, possibly from seed of Cox's Orange Pippin. Fruit medium-size, pale yellow skin flushed and striped in red; usually some russet. High vitamin C content. Regular bearing. Early midseason ripening.
JEFFERIS Old Pennsylvania variety, found in the 1830s. Fruit has rich flavor similar to Jonathan. Skin thin, easily bruised. So
mewhat tolerant of scab and mildew. Productive. Regular bearing; ripens over long period from midseason till late.
JONATHAN One of the finest apples ever produced; Dad grew up on Jonathan back in Southern Illinois. Probably a seedling of Esopus Spitzenburg; supposedly found in some of Johnny Appleseed's plantings. Tart/sweet balance; precocious and productive.
KANDIL SINAP An outstanding flavor brought in from Turkey nearly 200 years ago. Skin beautiful translucent yellow, almost a porceilain finish, rather similar to Opalescent. Unique nearly cylindrical form. October ripening; only fair keeper. Productive; genetic semi-dwarf tree, nearly pyramidal form.
KARMIJN DE SONNEVILLE Intense apple flavor & aroma come from the Cox's Orange Pippin X Jonathan cross. Bright, orange-red fruit. Fine winter keeper. Ripens mid-September. Triploid.
KERRY IRISH PIPPIN An old Irish variety, dating back at least into the early 1700s. Small, yellow-orange fruit with some red splotching. Crisp, crunchy texture; white flesh, spicy flavor. Considerable scab tolerance.
KIDD'S ORANGE RED Very high quality, close to its mother, Cox's Orange Pippin. Appearance similar to that of Delicious, the male parent. Medium-large fruit; excellent quality--flesh firm, crisp, sweet, aromatic. Skin red striped over orange; often heavily russeted. Scab tolerant. Midseason maturity.
KING DAVID Midwestern introduction similar to Jonathan, which is probably one parent; found in fencerow in Arkansas in 1893. Rich flavor. An excellent early cider apple. Beautiful mahogany red skin. Precocious and productive. Tolerant to fire blight. Fruit hangs on the tree through the winter.
KING OF THE PIPPINS Probably synonomous with Golden Winter Pearmain and Reine des Reinette. Crisp white flesh; fine flavor with good sugar/acid balance. Orange-red blush, usually with some red striping.
KING OF TOMPKINS COUNTY A great old antique; very good quality; good keeper. Very large, attractive fruit. Ripens just after McIntosh. Originated in New Jersey, but renamed in New York 200 years ago. Triploid.
LADY (Api) Beautiful small fruit -- only about an inch diameter-- produced in clusters of 4 to 7 apples. Although a delightul little thing to nibble on, Lady apples probably are most useful in making Christmas wreathes. From Brittany, 18th century but thought to have come down from Roman times. .
LAMB ABBEY PEARMAIN Seedling of Newtown Pippin raised in Kent in 1804. Medium size; skin pale yellow, with orange flush and red stripe. Light russet is common. Sweet subacid flavor; aromatic. Precocious and productive.
LATE STRAWBERRY Originated in Aurora, NY in the 1840s. Attractive pale yellow ground lightly striped or spashed with red. Flesh yellow-white, crisp, juicy; very good dessert apple. Precocious and productive.
LAXTON'S SUPERB Medium-large fruit; greenish-yellow, dull red mottling. Tender, juicy flesh; Cox flavor. From the Wyken Pippin x Cox's Orange Pippin cross; English, 1890s.
LORD LAMBOURNE High quality dessert apple bred by Laxton Bros. in England in early 1900s. James Grieve x Worcester Pearmain.
LORD'S SEEDLING Late summer ripening; late August at Geneva. Very winter hardy. Fruit large. Productive.
MELROSE A high quality winter keeper introduced by Ohio State University: Delicious x Jonathan. . Rather unattractive dark red -- looks like a generic apple. Large apples--typically 3-inch+. Very productive. Pick about 10 days after Delicious. Excellent keeper. Grower-friendly tree.
LORD'S SEEDLING Late summer ripening; late August at Geneva. Very winter hardy. Fruit large. Productive. .
MAIDEN BLUSH American antique, commonly cultivated in early 1800s. Very tender fruit, ripening in late summer. Pale yellow with pink blush.
MARGIL Dates back to the mid-1750s; probably French origin. Highly flavored-- one of the best; flesh fim, suggary, very romatic. Small, not particularly attractive. Very small, weak tree. Early bloom.
MELON Found in Ontario County, NY in 1845. Skin greenish-yellow; fruit medium large; crisp, juicy, spightly subacid. Poor storage. Scab ssceptible. Early October ripening.
MOLLIE'S DELICIOUS Not a cardboard Delicious, but an entirely different variety, bred at Rutgers. Very large apple, ripening in mid-August in Geneva.
MOTHER Old Massachusetts variety, foud in 1844. Outstanding flavor. Early autumn. Medium-large, long-conic fruit; bright red skin and tender, light yellow flesh. Early bearing; dependable production. Late September ripening.
NEWTOWN PIPPIN (YELLOW NEWTOWN; ALBEMARLE PIPPIN). This is the apple that Thomas Jefferson made famous 200 years ago. At Monticello, Jefferson had a large orchard of Pippins, which he had packed in barrels and shipped to England; on the London market, these Albemarle Pippins fetched premium prices. The Newtown Pippin is NOT a beautiful apple --it's rather squat, it's only medium size, its skin color is a yellowish-green that not attractive. Below that not-so-beautiful skin, though, lurks a gourmet's apple--rich flavor, highly aromatic, sweet/tart with a touch of pineapple. Very firm fruit; excellent keeper. Tree is vigorous; early-bearing; productive. Originated in the 1700s on Long Island.
NIAGARA A Cornell-Geneva introduction from the 1960s. Nice quality early apple. Susceptible to fire blight.
NITTANY A high quality seedling of York Imperial. Very similar to York, but larger, more productive, somewhat better dessert quality; flesh browns more slowly than York; better keeper; less problem with cork spot.
NORTHERN SPY Discovered just north of Geneva in early 1800s. Fruit very high quality; large, ribbed, usually red and pink striped over light yellow ground color. Traditionally very slow to come into bearing, but on dwarfing rootstocks early enough. Productive, but strong tendency to biennial bearing. Susceptible to blight and scab.
OLD NON-PAREIL Ancient English apple, dating back to early 1600s. Small, greenish-yellow fruit, turning to orange, usually with some russet. Small, not especially attractive. Outstanding flavor for eating out of hand. Makes an excellent single-variety cider. Late October ripening. Small tree..
OPALESCENT Glowing purplish-red skin -- "opalescent" finish. Large, late ripening. Yellow flesh; subacid; juicy. Michigan variety introduced in 1880.
ORLEANS REINETTE From France, one of Marie Antoinette's favorites. Medium to small, greenish-yellow fruit with netlike russett. Rich nutty flavor, similar to Chestnut Crab.
OZARK GOLD Typey yellow apple ripening about 10 days before Golden Delicious.
PERRINE GIANT TRANSPARENT A tetraploid sport of the classic Yellow Transparent. Fruit usually borne singly; much larger than the old Transparent, but flavor the same. Tree a natural semidwarf; much less subject to fire blight.
PINE GOLDEN PIPPIN Skin, entirely covered with a smooth coat of brown russet and marked with large light grey specks. Flesh, yellowish white, very tender and juicy, with a fine, sprightly, and distinct pineapple flavour. One of the best dessert apples; in use during October and November.
PITMASTON PINEAPPLE Small English apple with excellent flavor, usually described as nutty, honeyed. Sugary flesh; juicy. Lightly russet on beauitiful golden yellow.
POMME GRIS Cider and eating apple. Like other russets, its high flavor has a tart sweetness and pear-like richness. Yellow covered with brownish russet. Medium to small; thick, tough skin; rich, juicy, yellow flesh; firm, crisp, and aromatic. Excellent dessert apple.
POUND SWEET Very large golden yellow fruit; good eating quality, outstanding baker. According to Burford, Pound Sweet was used in Ohio during the Civil War to make apple butter that was sold to both North and South. Very good cider apple. Dates to the early 1800s.
RED WEALTHY A fine old Minnesota apple, ripening a couple of weeks before McIntosh. Introduced by Peter Gideon in 1868. Pleasantly tart. Midseason bloom. Precocious and productive
REGENT Medium size fruit. Bright red over yellow. Very pleasing flavor and texture. Honeyed, plenty of acidity, crisp, crackling, juicy flesh. Cooked keeps shape, light flavor, sweet, fruity. Delicately flavored. Fruits store into the winter.
REINETTE FRANCHE Netted russet on golden skin. Sweet/tart flavor. Antique from XVIth Normandy. Ripens late October.
REINETTE SIMERENKO A hardy dessert apple from Russia (but actually appears to be an obscure variety originating in New Jersey). Unusually drought-tolerant. Medium-large green fruit. October ripening. Tangy flavor with good sugar/acid balance; crisp and juicy. Fruit medium-large; pale yellow, with pink blush. Precocious and producive. Excellent keeper.
REINETTE ZABERGAU Outstanding dessert quality -- intense flavor, stong sweet/tart balance, Excellent storage. Triploid. Productive. Originated in Germany in late 1800s. Bronzed russet finish.
RHODE ISLAND GREENING One of oldest American varieties; from Rhode Island, about 1650. Fruit large, dense; Outstanding processing apple. Prized for pie-baking. Heavy producer. Fire blight susceptible. Triploid; will not pollenize other varieties.
RIBSTON PIPPIN Fine old English dessert apple, originated about 1700. Flesh very crisp, hard, sugary; intense, rich flavor and aroma. Not attractive -- brownish-orange skin. Triploid; pollen serile. Good scab tolerance. Late September ripening.
ROUVILLE Scab-resistant selection from the Agriculture Canada program.
ROXBURY RUSSET The oldest apple variety of North American origin was discovered and propagated in Roxbury town, Massachusetts about 1640. Roxbury Russet is still regarded as a fine dessert apple, although no longer to be found on the commercial markets. Roxbury Russet fruits are large (about 175 grams), yellow-bronze skin well overlain with yellow-brown russeting. When properly matured, sugar content is very high, yet sugar/acid balance contributes to its fine flavor. An excellent keeper, storing until April or May. Tree is moderately vigorous; rather tolerant to apple scab and powdery mildew diseases.
RUBINETTE It is intense and honeyed, with echoes of pear-drops, simultaneously sweet and sharp. Of all the Cox offspring, Rubinette surely gets closest to having that elusive greatness. Interestingly, although the addition of the sweetness of Golden Delicious might be expected to make Rubinette sweeter than Cox, somehow this has not happened, and if anything Rubinette is slightly sharper than Cox.
SEKAI ICHI A very large Japanese apple Delicious x Golden Delicious. Very good, sweet flavor.
SENSHU A seedling of Fuji, ripening 3 to 5 weeks earlier. Similar to Fuji but smaller; tree considerably easier to train. Fine flavor; good keeping quality.
SMOKEHOUSE An old Pennsylvania variety, noted as a winter keeper; dates to early 1800s. Dull red over greenish ground color; ugly but outstanding for eating and all cooking purposes. Flesh crisp, subacid. Tree productive.
SPENCER Very high quality; crisp and juicy. Ripens about 3 weeks after McIntosh. Very winter hardy. From the Agriculture Canada breeding program at Summerland, BC, a McIntosh x Golden Delicious cross (1959).
SPIJON Another high quality Geneva introduction (1968), this Red Spy x Monroe cross was originally intended for the processing grower. We see it as a fine eating apple, unfortunately neglected. Productive.
SPLENDOUR (That's New Zealand spelling -- leave out the "u" if you'll feel better!) Almost immune to fire blight -- by far the most blight-resistant variety yet tested at Geneva. Beautiful carmine-red apples ripening with Mutsu; fabulous winter keeper. Sweet, very low acid.
SPOKANE BEAUTY (Jumbo)
ST. EDMUND'S RUSSET This old (1875) English variety is one of the best early autumn eating apples; ripens a month before Golden Russet. Beautiful solid bronze russet. Precocious and productive. Moderate vigor.
STAYMAN WINESAP Major apple variety in the Shenandoah for many years. Triploid. Prone to cracking.
SUMMER RAMBO (RedSumBo) Jonathan-type late summer apple. Greenish-yellow, red-striped. Fruit larger than Jonathan. Flavor rich, sprightly. Good for eating out of hand, for drying, for all culinary purposes. Precocious and productive. Semi-compact tree.
SWAAR Dutch settlers in the Hudson Valley, above New York City, originated the variety. Skin is rough, tough, lightly russeted. Fruit is dense, very high in sugar content; stores well.
TOLMAN SWEET Nearly 200 years old; from Massachusetts. Skin pale yellow, flesh white. Very good sweet (low acid) flavor. Very winter hardy; reliable cropper. Tree productive, healthy, long-lived.
TRANSCENDENT CRAB Medium-sized fruit for a crab, perhaps the largest of the Siberian crabapples -- typically 2-inch diameter. Crimson red flush on yellow groundcover. Excellent canner. Early midseason ripening. Hardy to -40 and colder. Productive.
TWENTY OUNCE PIPPIN Early ripening (before McIntosh). Large cooking apple; favorite of commercial processors.
WAGENER A parent of Idared and probably of Northern Spy. Winter hardy. Natural semi-dwarf tree; precocious and productive. Crisp and juicy. Good keeper. Found near Penn Yan, just 15 miles from Geneva, in the 1790s.
WESTFIELD SEEK-NO-FURTHER Very high quality dessert variety from Massachusetts, about 1790. Unusually suitable for drying -- high sugar, plus increase of already rich sweet, nutty flavor. Very winter hardy.
WHITE WINTER PEARMAIN The oldest known apple of English origin -- dates back to early Norman times. Fruit medium-large, greenish. Very good dessert and culinary quality -- "honeysweet", but with gooe acid balance. Good keeper. Quite low chilling requirement.
WHITNEY CRAB Early summer crab, ripening about with Duchess of Oldenburg. Extremely winter hardy. Yellow flesh; sweet & juicy. Diameter 1 inch. Precocious and very productive. Relatively free of disease. Originated in Illinois in the 1860s.
WINESAP This is the old-fashioned Virginia Winesap - a small, hard apple that keeps all winter in the garage. Dates back to colonial times, when it was especially regarded as a cider variety. Spicy, sweet-tart flavor. Moderate vigor; relatively small, productive tree.
WINTER BANANA The banana-like flavor is faint but distinct. Creamy yellow skin, occasionally with pink blush. Compact, semi-dwarf tree. Sweet, rather bland; very juicy. Much used as a pollenizer; midseason bloom. Originated in Indiana in 1870s.
WOLF RIVER Huge cooking apples. One of the very hardiest of all apple varieties -- undamaged at 40 below. Immune to scab; very resistant to fire blight , mildew and rust. Vigorous and productive. Ripens just before McIntosh. Strictly a cooking apple. Originated in Wisconsin, 1870s; probably seedling of Alexander.
WORCHESTER PEARMAIN. Old English apple; found there in the mid-1800s. Intense strawberry flavor. Bright red skin, juicy white flesh. Productive. September ripening.
YELLOW BELLFLOWER Found in New Jersey about the time George Washington was born. Large, yellow, elongated, usually more or less conic, often irregular. Excellent keeper. Very good dessert quality; excellent cooker.