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GENEVA 11® My favorite! From Cornell-at-Geneva. A Malling 26 x Robusta 5 hybrid. Very precocious, very productive, good resistance to both fire blight and collar rot. Very few burrknots. Woollies find it much less attractive than M.26 or M.9 At my brother’s orchard near Ithaca, NY, Mutsu on G.11 are the most handsome trees in the orchard. In the Liberty test plantings at Geneva, trees on G.11 have given excellent performance. Very little suckering.
GENEVA 16® (G.16®) From the Cornell-Geneva breeding program; Dad’s favorite of all his “children”. Ottawa 3 x Malus floribunda. Resistant to crown rot and fire blight. In the nursery, immune to apple scab, susceptible to powdery mildew. Very susceptible to woolly apple still not aphids. Vigor slightly more than Malling 9; tree grows very strongly in the nursery and in the first couple of years in the orchard. Suckers and burrknots are very rare. Not nearly as brittle as M.9; much better anchorage. However, we have seen some union breakage in young trees just coming into bearing, especially under the brittle varieties Gala and Honeycrisp. We strongly suggest staking these varieties. Some customer feedback suggests that trees on G.16 may survive drought unusualy well. Sensitive to the common latent viruses; only virus-free scionwood may be used. Trees on G.16 bear early and are very productive. Especially well suited to Mutsu and other triploids.
GENEVA 202 (G.202) First Geneva rootstock resistant to woolly apple aphids, as well as crown rot and fire blight. Already in heavy production in New Zealand. Dwarfing similar to M.26 and G.11. Not as productive as G.11, but probably a better choice in the South, where WAA is a problem.
GENEVA 210 (G.210) Produces trees 35% to 45% of seedling, closer to Malling 9 in Washington state and closer to Malling 26 in New York. From the Ottawa 3 x Robusta 5 cross, 1976. Resistant to crown rot, fireblight, woolly apple aphid, and replant disease. Ideally suited to high density vertical axe plantings in upstate NY, and suitable for spindle planting out West, in replant sites, and on poorer soils. Also a promising substitute for Malling 26 anywhere that a medium-density, free standing system is desired. Phenomenal yield efficiency--- in one Empire trial at Cornell Orchards in Ithaca (a replant site), G.210 produced three times more apples over a ten year period than any other rootstock, including Malling 9.
GENEVA 30® From Cornell-at-Geneva. A major challenger for M.7, G.30 is similar to M.7 in dwarfing but is better anchored, more precocious and much more productive, and much less prone to burrknots. A terrible nursery subject -- fairly difficult to root; many spines. In some test plantings subjected to unusually high winds, there has been union breakage of Gala trees on G.30. We now recommend that most varieties on G.30 be given support, especially during the early fruiting years; we have seen no breakage after five years in the orchard;. Resistant to crown rot and fire blight; apparently tolerant of replant disease.
GENEVA 41 (G.41) A little more dwarfing than Malling 9. From the Ottawa 3 x Robusta 5 cross. Selected for resistance to crown rot, woolly aphids and fire blight. Outstanding production. We think G.41 is the best replacement for Malling 9 in high density plantings;
GENEVA 65® "Little Beauty" My mother's favorite. The first introduction from the breeding program at Geneva, NY under the direction of Dr. James N. Cummins and Dr. Herb Aldwinckle. Very dwarfing, between M.9 and M.27. G.65 is precocious, very productive, resistant to crown rot and almost immune to fire blight. (In the nursery, G.65 is resistant to scab and mildew, too). Trees on G.65 are sturdy, well-anchored, thrifty little trees but they do require irrigation. Some suckering; nearly no burrknots. Extremely difficult to propagate, so much so that we have never been able to get it into commerce. Macs on Geneva 65 survived the severe winters in Quebec. Probably most suitable as patio plants and for the intense backyard hobbyist.
GENEVA 890 (G.890) Produces a semi-dwarf tree that is 60% of seedling vigor in New York conditions, 40-50% in Washington state. From the Ottawa 3 x Robusta 5 cross, 1976. With a yield efficiency greater than Malling 9, G.890 is more productive than any self-supporting rootstock ever released in this size class. Resistant to crown rot, fireblight, and the woolly apple aphid; tolerant of replant disease. Vigorous and well anchored.
GENEVA 935 (G.935) Dwarfing between M.26 and M.7. From the Ottawa 3 x Robusta 5 cross. Fantastic productivity. Resistant to crown rot and fire blight; tolerant of replant disease.
BUDAVGOSKY 9 (Red-Leaved Paradise) (Bud.9) Same level of dwarfing as Malling 9, but about 5 degrees more winter hardy. In some tests, Bud.9 has not been quite as productive as Malling 9. In two recent trials, Bud.9 has been much more tolerant of fire blight than M.9 and we are using Bud.9 under fire-blight susceptible varieties. Not quite so brittle as Malling 9, but staking is still strongly advised.
BUDAVGOSKY 118 (Bud.118) About the same vigor as MM.111, but as winter-hardy as Antonovka. Burrknots and suckers are rare. Productive; well-anchored. Red leaves, red wood, red blossoms, red fruit.
Malling 9 Produces a fully dwarfed tree with good fruit size and color. Precocious and very productive. Requires a permanent support system. Irrigation is very helpful. Resistant to crown rot. Susceptible to nematodes, woolly apple aphid, and fire blight. Because fire blight is becoming so critical throughout our area, we are no longer working with M.9.
Malling 26 Very productive dwarf tree -- but south of Pennsylvania, maybe more vigorous than expected. Better anchored than M.9, but at least temporary support is still recommended. M.26 is very, very susceptible to fire blight, burrknots, woolly apple aphids and crown rot. However, if M.26 is planted on a well drained (not droughty) soil, trees can give outstanding production.
M.7 EMLA The old workhorse of the apple industry. Usually free standing, although sometimes anchorage can be a problem. Half of standard-sized tree. Moderately resistant to crown rot and to fire blight. Suckering can be a problem. Trees on M.7 are quite cold hardy. The Malling 7 root systems tends to be vertically oriented; if the roots hit an inpenetrable clay pan at 12 to 18 inches, root growth usually stops and the tree "runts out".
MALLING-MERTON 106 Still the best of the more vigorous rootstocks -- precocious and productive, well-anchored. But MM.106 is very susceptible to crown rot and almost uniquely sensitive to Tomato Ringspot Virus. We do especially like MM.106 under spur-type trees and under a dwarfing interstock such as Budagovsky 9 or Malling 9. A great rootstock in the right spot, but a poor choice for some sites.
MALLING-MERTON 111 Close to 80% of full standard vigor, MM.111 is more tolerant of difficult soil conditions than the other English rootstocks. Not precocious -- which is one reason we don't put Northern Spy on it!! Quite prone to burrknots. We like to use MM.111 under spur-type varieties and under interstocks.
P.18 A Malling 4 x Common Antonovka hybrid from the great Polish rootstock breeding program at Skierniewice. (No, the "P" doesn't stand for "Polish" or "Poland", but for the Polish word for rootstock.) Slightly more vigorous than Budagovsky 118, about 95% of standard. Extremely winter-hardy, as well as tolerant of "wet feet". Resistant to collar rot, scab, mildew, and gall; intermediate tolerance to fireblight. No burrknot tendencies!
ANTONOVKA This seedling rootstock is grown from seeds imported from Poland. Full "standard" vigor. Very winter-hardy. Has been our major rootstock for conservation plantings.
NOVOLE An introduction from the Geneva rootstock breeding program, Novole has a "non-preference" type of resistance to meadow voles and pine voles ("orchard mice"). Very vigorous; best used as a root-and-trunk stock, with a dwarfing interstem interposed about 16 inches above the ground. Virus-sensitive; all components must be virus-free. Resistant to fire blight and collar rot. Available sometime in the future as a rootstock
OTTAWA 3 (O.3) A winter-hardy dwarfing stock from the Canadian rootstock breeding program-- Malling 9 x Robin Crab. Just a little more vigorous than M.9. Resistant to collar rot, but susceptible to fire blight and woolly aphids. Difficult to root in the stoolbed. In the orchard, the first year or two growth is very slow. No burrknots.
Pyrus betulifolia Standard vigor. Reimer's strain of fire blight-tolerant seedlings. Reported to enhance fruit size on Asian pears.
OHXF 97 These OHXF stocks originated from the Old Home x Farmingdale cross; both parents are very resistant to fire blight. OHXF 97 is full standard vigor; fire blight resistant. More productive than seedling.
OHXF 87 Outstanding semi-vigorous clonal stock. Excellent anchorage. Tolerant of soil diseases. Very resistant to fire blight. Tolerant of low temperatures. Induces early, heavy production.
OHxF 333 Somewhat more dwarfing than OHxF 87, with similar resistances. Some reports that fruit size is smaller, but this may be due to excessively heavy fruit set
QUINCE A A Fully dwarfing rootstock, with very heavy production. Fruit ripens 3 to 5 days earlier than on seedling stocks. Quince A is more winter hardy than other quince strains, certainly through USDA zone 5.