AUTUMN SWEET Recently released by Washington State University, Autumn Sweet easily surpasses the yield and fruit quality of Italian Prune. It is partially self-fertile and always sets well in Geneva in the company of Stanley and NY 9. Fruit is firm and well-suited for packing and shipping.
BLUE BYRD Recent introduction from USDA breeding program, tested as B69158. Bright blue skin, amber-yellow flesh. Excellent flavor; good sugar-acid balance. Typically 2 inches long, not quite as wide. Ripens 10 days before Stanley. Erect growth habit; spur fruiting. Self-infertile; requires pollenizer such as Stanley or Green Gage. Well adapted to Mid-Atlantic region.
BLUES JAM Recent release from the Cornell breeding program.
Fruit slightly larger than Damson. Moderate level of astringency, lower than Damson; yields a very nice jam or sauce. The skin is purple-blue with greenish- yellow flesh. The pit is free. It is SELF FERTILE and a mid season bloomer that will pollenize any other European plum. It is somewhat susceptible to mite attack on the leaves but it is much less inclined to be biennial than Jam Session (NY 111). It normally ripens in the last half of September in Geneva.
CASTLETON Early, high quality blue plum, ripening a month before Empress. Ripens 3 weeks before Stanley. Takes on deep blue color well before maturity; must depend on taste test for determining picking time. Dual purpose -- a fine early dessert plum, but also an excellent processing variety. Fruit medium size, freestone; pit does not shatter or split. Self-fruitful. Consistently productive. Tree spreading, medium vigor. Valor x Iroquois; released in 1993.
EMPRESS Very large, high quality, dark blue fruit. Ripens late in the season -- next to the latest variety we have in our list. President x Emily. Productive. A must for the farmstand. Empress has been consistently productive after late spring frosts.
DAMSON Antique plum with acidic skin. Used for jams, jellies, and slivovitz.
ERSINGER Old German variety. Medium-small blue plum, really elegant flavor, ripening just before Castleton. Not big enough for packing, but excellent for home use and PYO.
GENEVA MIRABELLE Just introduced by Cornell's Geneva Experiment Station. Very similar to the French Mirabellier -- small yellow fruit with very small pit; often a slight pink blush; very sweet. Freestone. One fruit makes a bite. Very productive. Parentage unknown.
GRAND PRIZE A Luther Burbank introduction from the 1930s. Very large; high quality purple fruit. Ripens late midseason. Moderate vigor.
GRAS AMELIORAT Fruit averages about 1 inch in diameter. Red over a golden ground color. Texture is somewhat coarser than that of Herrenhausen Mirabelle but is still very pleasing with excellent flavor and high sugar levels. Not self-compatible. This variety is firm enough to store and ship to commercial markets.
GRAS ROMANESC This maroon/purple skinned plum has green/ amber flesh that often exceeds 25 percent soluble solids when tree ripe. The round- oblong fruit averages about 1 inch in diameter. Its texture is somewhat crisp when eaten at best fresh market maturi. It stores very well with sugar increasing in storage. The fruit ripens in mid-September in Geneva. It is self-incompatible and pollinized effectively by Damson and Castleton.
GREEN GAGE One of the grand old "English" varieties (actually French) brought to America about 1770. Not attractive at all -- fruits are dull green, often with surface freckles, fairly small (about 1"). Brown rot susceptible. But the flavor is outstanding -- so much so that it's still around after 300 years.
HONEYSWEET Open pollination seedling of Blue Byrd, resistant to plum pox and black knot. Average weight of 2 oz, length 2 inches & width 1.75 inches. Flesh is yellow, firm, juicy, and sweet.
JAM SESSION (NY 111) This plum has small fruit, similar in size to Damson. In contrast to Damson it has no astringency. It has purple skin and yellow flesh; partially freestone. It tends to be biennial. It is SELF-FERTILE and an early bloomer, too early to pollenize Seneca or Mirabelle. In years with very heavy crops and wet weather near harvest time, it has not developed brown rot in the tightly clustered fruit. In some years we have seen significant levels of mite attack on the leaves (which can strain the tree to fully ripen a large crop). It usually ripens in the second week of September in Geneva. This fruit can be used to make a very nice dark purple jam with a good fruity character.
KENMORE (NY#9) This is a self-fertile prune-type plum. Selected from the Standard x Stanley cross; ripens with Stanley, early September. Fruit appears powder-blue with waxy white bloom; underneath the wax skin is purple. Flesh amber-green; sweet, mild flavor. Freestone; non-shattering stone. Healthy, vigorous tree, very resistant to black knot; tolerant to mites and to bacterial spot. Good for fresh market and for processing.
LONGJOHN A wonderful plum named after the late Geneva plum breeder, John Watson. This is a large, long, teardrop-shaped, attractive blue plum with fruits that are freestone and very high quality. Ripens with Stanley. Iroquois type. The tree is upright, spreading and somewhat willowy in growth. In taste tests this has been my favorite. Partially self-fruitful, but heavier cropping with good pollenizers such as Polly and Victory. Iroquois x Cal.4A33L; released in 1993.
MIRABELLIER Famous French plum, very high sugar content; fairly dry. Very crisp. Fruits small -- just about sweet cherry size and appearance. Very small pit.
MOUNT ROYAL Earned the reputation of being the hardiest of the European Prunus domestica varieties. Medium-sized, dark blue, freestone. Early midseason. Genetic semi-dwarf.
NY 1456 Soon to be named by Cornell's Geneva station. High quality yellow plum for fresh market. Fruit large, oblong; flesh firm, yellow-amber, slightly coarse. Vigorous, productive tree. More susceptible to brown rot than Stanley. Agen x Grand Duke.
OPAL Swedish cross of Oullins Gage x Early Favourite, tree is round-headed, dense, vigorous, fully self-fertile,productive, and precocious, has borne plums in its 3rd growing season. Hardy at –30F. Ripens late July in central WA, early August in central MN. Fruits round, 1-1/4 to 1-1/2", reddish purple with amber flesh, complex sweet flavor, excellent for fresh eating and drying.|
OULLINS GOLDEN GAGE A Gage-type yellow plum, ripening about a week before Stanley. A real gourmet variety -- one of the best I've ever tasted. Fruit medium to medium-large. Tree vigorous, productive.
POLLY (NY#65.363.1 -- Oneida open-pollinated). Good for fresh market, an ideal pollinizer for European plums. Fruits are purple, long-oblate, large and freestone with a fresh mild taste. The tree is upright-spreading, medium vigor. Ripens with Stanley. Regular cropper and self-fertile.
PRESIDENT Very last of the European plums to mature -- third week of September here. Very large blue fruit. High quality. Vigorous, productive. Very resistant to bacterial spot; good resistance to black knot.
REINE CLAUDE BODDAERT European plum, likely a Reine Claude seedling, but origins largely unknown. Fruit is yellow, dry, tender, meaty, and sweet.
REINE CLAUDE CONDUCTA This pink/ purple skinned plum has high quality amber flesh, somewhat crisp and very sweet. It ripens with Early Italian and Castleton and sets lighter crops than the other gage-types. This plum is so unusual in quality and color that ev ery farmstand should have it. It is self- infertile and is pollinized by Oullins.
ROSY GAGE (NY 101) Rosy Gage is a unique fresh-market plum bred by the late John Watson at the Cornell-Geneva research station. Perhaps the most elegantly flavored of all the plums grown on Station grounds. Hybrid of the famed European variety Imperial Epineuse and an unknown parent. Yellow-green skin with a pink to rose colored blush when sunlight is adequate. Hardy and a consistent cropper. Fruit of the highest quality when eaten fresh, not firm enough for the wholesale market. Ripens in late August. Tree is not self-fertile and is susceptible to the fungal diseases brown rot & black knot. Early mid bloom-time, too early to reliably pollenize Seneca, Mirabelle, or Golden Transparent Gage.
SENECA The largest plum yet introduced by the Geneva station; named in 1972. Fellenberg x Prinlew. Reddish-purple skin, orange flesh. Seneca ripens about a week before Stanley. Wonderful eating -- very sweet and dangerously juicy!! Too tender for shipping, but a must for home garden and farm market. Self- unfruitful. Crack-resistant. Tree somewhat dwarfish, somewhat open crown. Tolerant to black knot.
STANLEY The standard plum in the East for the last 50 years. Released by the Cornell-Geneva station in 1926; Agen x Grand Duke. Reliable cropper. Ripens about the same time as Longjohn in Geneva -- second week in September. Medium size; freestone most years; pit shatters in some seasons. Tree hardy; resistant to bacterial spot but quite susceptible to black knot.
STARKING DELICIOUS (Johnson cv.) Consistently heavy bearer of rich dessert plums. Not only is the red-flesh fruit abundant and luscious, but the tree is disease-resistant, too. A clingstone and extra-large if you remember to thin to at least 4" between plums. Self-infertile.
VALOR Ripens late, in Fellenburg (Italian Prune) season, but much larger and much better flavor. From the Vineland (Ontario) breeding program; Imperial Epineuse x Grand Duke. Dark purple skin, greenish-yellow flesh. Freestone when ripe; late midseason. Very sweet. Self-fertile; very productive. Susceptible to black knot; resistant to bacterial spot .
VICTORY From Vineland, an exciting new large (typically 2 inch diameter) blue prune-plum ripening about 3 to 5 days after Stanley. Very high quality -- Dad's favorite. Firm, good shipper. Precocious and productive. Late blooming, with Stanley, Fellenbug and Valor. Pollinated by Fellenbug, Vision, Voyageur and Longjohn but not Stanley or Valor.. Vision x Valor -- this cross has President, Imperial Epineuse, Grand Duke and Pacific in its pedigree.
VISION Superior taste and flavor. Very productive (requires pollenizer such as Stanley). Large to very large; purple with golden-yellow flesh.
VOYAGEUR A medium-large light purple plum from the Vineland program. Ripens about with Castleton, 3 weeks before Stanley. Tends to drop when mature.
YELLOW EGG Antique yellow plum from England. Medium-large. Crisp, firm flesh; good flavor. Productive.
ALDERMAN Japanese-American hybrid. Large fruit. Bright red, late August ripening. High quality -- rates among the very best hybrids. Clingstone. Very winter hardy. At Geneva, only plum with decent crop after harsh winters of 2004 and 2005. Precocious and productive. Attractive in the landscape -- profuse, large white flowers. From Minnesota.
AU ROSA This plum is the highest ranked of the AU series of plums in disease resistance to bacterial spot, black knot, scald and brown rot. With all the flavorful attributes of Santa Rosa, these firm dark red fruit have a saffron yellow flesh that is juicy with an excellent flavor. Great for fresh eating, cooking and canning. Trees are vigorous and productive. Ripens early August.
BUBBLEGUM (Description by the breeder, Paul Friday) - This plum ripens 20 days after Redhaven and is the most exciting plum for retail marketing to ever come down the pike. It has the essence and taste of bubblegum which has driven our retail customers wild. Our retail patrons of all status and economic levels request this plum way after their availability every season. We sell this plum 20 to 1 over any other plum at our farm stands throughout the season, it is an unbelievable winner. It requires another variety for cross pollination, Pipestone, Waneta, and Superior are three of many choices suggested. This variety is very hardy and can be grown from zone 3 up.
BURBANK Large, reddish-purple plum introduced nearly 100 years ago by Luther Burbank. Mid-August in Geneva. Precocious and productive.
BYRONGOLD Recently introduced by USDA breeders at Byron, Georgia Productive at Geneva. Large yellow fruit.
CRIMSON Skin and flesh deep crimson. Excellent quality; clingstone. From the Auburn, Alabama breeding program, but seems to be fairly well suited to the Northeast. Considerable resistance to black knot and bacterial canker.
CRIMSON BEAUTY (BY 8158-50) A great new red-fleshed selecton from the USDA station at Byron, Georgia. Best flavored of any red-fleshed varieties we've seen. Productive at Geneva, but only marginally winter-hardy.
EARLY GOLDEN Earliest Japanese plum in production in New York. Yellow; good quality; round fruit. Ripens in mid-July. Pollenizer required.
FORTUNE This Japanese-type from the USDA breeding program at Fresno provides an alternative to the standard dark-skinned European varieties. The fruit is very large with a bright red skin on yellow background, firm-fleshed -- perhaps the very best eating of the Japanese plums. Clingstone. Does best on heavier soils. Among the most consistent croppers at Geneva.
LAVINA New from Lithuania. Golden yellow with rosy blush. Medium small; very productive. Outstanding eating quality. Survived and thrived at Geneva after 2 devastating winters.
METHLEY Methley produces juicy, sweet, red-fleshed fruits with a mild flavor. This early variety has reddish-purple skin and blood red flesh. The tree is very attractive and vigorous. Methley is SELF FRUITFUL so no pollinizer is needed. Red-purple skin and soft, juicy, blood-red flesh. Attractive to bees, butterflies and birds and the flowers are fragrant. It is drought-tolerant and a regular bearer.
NY 1502 An advanced selection from the Geneva breeding program; Abundance x Methley. Medium size, attractive yellow fruit with rosy-red blush. Firmer, better quality than Early Golden, with which it ripens in July. Some tendency to split pits.
OBLINAJA A new introduction from Russia; not yet widely tested in North America. Large, dark red skin, turning almost black when dead ripe. Spicy flavor, crisp texture at Geneva. Well worth a trial.
OUSHI-WASE (pronounced "wishy-washy") A new introduction from Japan. Looks very promising in early trials in Hudson Valley, NY and in Vineland, Ontario.
OZARK PREMIER Juicy, yellow flesh; clingstone, small pit. Late summer. Burbank x Methley. Rather large; reddish-purple fruit. Fruits hang well on the tree, giving extended harvest, but once picked do not store well. Precocious and consistently productive.
RUBYSWEET Another USDA introduction from Byron. Just beginning to fruit in test plots here at Geneva; so far, so good. Bright red flesh; medium-large, bronze-red fruit; good eating. Not adequately winter-hardy for Geneva.
SANTA ROSA Another Luther Burbank introduction, and still an important variety. Medium-large, bright red fruit, ripening midseason. Vigorous, precocious, productive tree.
SHIRO The most consistently productive Japanese plum in western New York. Medium size fruit; golden yellow, attractive. Good quality. Ripens early July in Geneva. One of the best for PYO and farmstand.
SUPERIOR. The hardiest of the good Japanese-American hybrids. Beautiful red blush over yellow basic color. Fruit large to very large. Skin slightly astringent. Clingstone. Very early bearing. Mid- to late August.
VAMPIRE A late mid-season plum with medium-large fruits. It has an attractive blend of shiny green and ruby red skin. The flesh is red and very juicy. Exhibits more cold tolerance than any other red-fleshed plum here.
VANIER A Vineland selection from the Wickson x Burbank cross. Bright red fruit, medium to medium-small size. Excellent flavor. Midseason ripening -- about 3 weeks after Santa Rosa. Vigorous and productive. Flame-red skin; yellow flesh; clingstone. Pollenizer required.
MYROBOLAN (Myro) Prunus divaricata. Widely used standard-size rootstock. Compatible with wide range of cultivars. It makes a strong, well anchored tree that is well adapted to a variety of soils including heavy soils. It is susceptible to oak root fungus and nematodes. Some suckering is typical, especially right at the trunk. This is our standard rootstock.
KRYMSK 1 New from Russia. Very winter hardy. Semidwarfing.
PUMISELECT is a clonal selection of Prunus pumila, the eastern sand cherry. Not all varieties are compatible. Considerably dwarfing.
TORINEL A patented Prunus hybrid that is somewhat dwarfing, well adapted to wet-feet situations.