ALEXANDER An extremely winter-hardy antique from 17th Century Russia. Very large green to greenish-yellow fruit, somemes striped. For cooking. Large, attractive blossoms.
ALMATA Classic red-fleshed apple with Russian ancestry from a Beautiful Arcade x Fluke 38 cross made by Hansen at South Dakaota experiment station. Bright red skin and flesh.Tart; makes excellent bright red sauce. Extremely winter hardy. From Hansen's breeding program. Susceptible to fire blight and scab.
ANTONOVKA1-1/2 POUND A huge green apple from Russia. Introduced by Michurin in 1888. Very winter hardy. Immune to apple scab; susceptible to fire blight. Good cooker; tart.
ANTONOVKA KAMENICHKA Medium-sized yellow fruit. From Russia. Scab-resistant; tolerant of fire blight. Very winter-hardy.
BLACK OXFORD High quality winter keeper from Maine, early 1800s. Very dark purplish-red, almost black with a distinctive bluish "bloom" on the fruit. Very winter hardy. Said to be tolerant of insects and disease.
BEACON Wealthy x Malinda. Bright red apple with soft, juicy flesh and a slightly tart flavor. Tree is hardy, vigorous, and susceptible to fire blight. Introduced in 1936.Ripens mid- to late August.
BLUE PEARMAIN An old English variety that has been successful in Maine and Quebec because of its excellent winter hardiness. Skin very dark purplish red, similar to Black Oxford. Fruit large; mild-flavored; sweet; aromatic. Keeps all winter. October ripening.
BURGUNDY A Cornell-Geneva introduction from Dr. Roger Way's program. Ripens about a week before McIntosh. Well-balanced sweet-tart flavor. Skin bright mahoghany-red; unusual pebbled surface. Apples hang well. Excellent for the first autumn cider-making.
CAMPFIELD Late season, cold hardy cider apple. Vigorous, productive tree. Keeps well. Generally mixed with Harrison.
CHESTNUT CRAB Very hardy introduction from the University of Minnesota program; open-pollinated seedling of Malinda. Fruits are mostly about 2 inch diameter. Bronze skin. Distinctive nutty flavor. Hangs well. Resistant to cedar apple rust. Semi-compact tree.
CHIEFTAN A Delicious seedling introduced from Iowa State. Much higher quality than Delicious; hardy in Iowa. Moderately resistant to fire blight and scab.
CORTLAND (See under Main Crop).
DOLGO CRAB Natural semi-dwarf crab. Early bloom, abundant pollen. Fruit about 1" diam., 1-1/2" long -- and each little bite is delicious. C.A.R.-resistant; tolerant to scab.Very hardy.
DUCHESS OF OLDENBURG Very old Russian variety, hardy to -40F. Early summer ripening. Tart; primarily cooking variety. Very productive, although can turn biennial. Rarely affected by scab. Very susceptible to apple blotch.
EMPIRE McIntosh x Red Delicious; Geneva, New York 1966. Dark red with heavy, waxy bloom. Creamy white juicy, moderately subacid flesh. High dessert quality also good for cider.Tree Characteristics: Vigorous upright early bearing tree with a strong wide crotch angle. Tendency toward spur type habit. Very consistent annual producer.
EGREMONT RUSSET Prized as the most delicious of the English russets. Small, round, golden brown russet fruit often with black spots or markings. Almost smoky, tannic quality develops after keeping and flesh becomes drier. Size medium, shape round, very high quality. Like all russets, it is a good keeper. Trees have moderate vigor, upright, crop is good and scab resistant. Hardy to -40 degrees.
FAMEUSE (SNOW) The ancient Snow apple of Quebec, dating back to the 1600s. Superbly winter hardy. Brilliant white flesh, red-striped skin. Mild flavor. Supposed to be Mother of McIntosh. Scab susceptible.
FIRESIDE An outstanding dessert apple from the Minnesota breeders. Precocious and productive. Good sweet-tart balance. Moderate resistance to C.A.R. Susceptible to scab and fire blight.
FORTUNE Also known as: NY 429. Empire x Schoharie Spy. Harvest: October Description: Very good "spicy" fresh eating quality. Fruit large, with an attractive color. Flesh yellow. Subject to bitter pit. Tree Characteristics: Tree dense foliage, very vigorous. Biennial. Resistant to cedar apple rust.
FRANKLIN In 2008, while trying to find the perfect apple cider blend, Bill Mayo of Franklin, Vermont mixed in some juice from the fruit of a wild apple tree that just happened to be growing on his property. "This tree right here for a long time was just an apple tree. And I started using it, blending it in my sweet cider, at the Franklin General. And we found that it added wonderful complexity to it," says Mayo. No traces of apple scab or cedar apple rust. “We live on the Canadian border,” Mayo says. “This tree is 60-plus years old and has shown no winter damage. It was put to the test in several winters of -32°F to -35°F.”
FUJI, SEPTEMBER WONDER Formerly known as Jubilee™ Fuji, this is the earliest true Fuji on the market. Ripens 6 weeks earlier than normal Fuji--- picking in Golden Delicious season in most areas. September Wonder™ will allow you to offer true Fuji flavor and sweetness if you grow in an area where it is difficult to mature normal Fuji's. Best coloring of the early Fuji sports, storageability equivalent to Gala, less than later Fujis. Disease susceptibility: average susceptibility to scab, low susceptibility to mildew and fireblight.
HONEYCRISP Origin: Keepsake x ??? University of Minnesota, 1991. Color is red mottled over a yellow background. Has excellent eating and keeping qualities. SIGNIFICANT POLYGENETIC SCAB AND BLIGHT TOLERANCE IN FIELD TRIALS according to the man most responsible for its release, David Bedford of Minnesota.
HONEYGOLD Golden Delicious x Haralson. Hardy substitute for Golden Delicious developed especially for cold northern areas. Golden Delicious flavor, Haralson hardiness. Medium to large golden to greenish fruit with very smooth finish and reddish bronze blush. Flavor is sweeter and more bland than Golden Delicious. High quality. Superior storage qualities. Susceptible to fire blight. Hardy to -50 degrees with occasional winter injury.
KEEPSAKE MN 447 x Northern Spy; Introduced in 1979. Unattractive, irregularly shaped, 2.25 to 2.75 inch diameter, 90% red fruit. Fine grained, hard, very crisp, juicy light yellow flesh. Strongly aromatic flavor. Very hardy. Mellows with age. Attains peak fresh eating quality in January or February. Keeps in storage through April. Moderately vigorous spreading tree. Resistant to fireblight and cedar apple rust.
KERR An American bittersweet, discovered by Gary Smith at an unnamed location in Minnesota; recently introduced to cidermakers by Dan Bussey. Charles McGonegal, a chemist and commercial cider maker at AEppelTreow Winery & Distillery in Burlington, WI, has confirmed that "the Kronebusch is a bittersweet apple suitable for blending in making quality hard cider."
MACOUN McIntosh x Jersey Black; Geneva Station in 1909, introduced 1950. Harvest: early to mid-October, Season: November-December. Description: Size and shape like McIntosh with more striped and deeper red coloring. Dark purplish red blush over green background. Firm, aromatic, all-purpose high quality eating apple. Fruit drops readily and bruises easily. Resistant to cedar apple rust.
MCINTOSH Origin: Ontario, Canada 1798. Harvest: September; Season: September - December. Description: Fruit beautiful deep red color, size variable. Flesh white, firm, tender, very juicy, flavor characteristically aromatic, perfumed, subacid.
MUTSU Good eating apple, first class cider and sauce. Green fruit ripens yellow. Tree Characteristics: Large vigorous tree. Triploid Crispin (Mutsu) CRISPIN was developed in 1937 as a cross between Golden Delicious and Indo. From the Aomori Research Station, Kurioshi, Japan, it was introduced to the US in 1948.
NORTHERN SPY Large, round, often flattened greenish-yellow fruit flushed and striped pinkish red with a delicate bloom, and occasionally russet patches. Fine grained, rather firm, very tender, crisp, juicy, yellowish flesh. Tart, aromatic, subacid flavor. Excellent all-purpose apple, except not good for drying. Remarkably fresh after long storage. Biannual bearer. Slow to bear. Very hardy.
NOVASPY NovaEasyGro x (Northern Spy x Golden Delicious); Nova Scotia. Description: bears much earlier than Northern Spy, keeps well. Very good resistance to fireblight according to Michigan trials. Ripens in early-mid October, between Northern Spy and Mutsu. Resistant to some, but not all, strains of apple scab.
NY 35 (BONKERS) Very large dark red fruit maturing after Delicious. Many fruit develop parthenocarpically. Some irregularly shaped fruit. Not as precocious as Liberty or Empire. Unusually large size may make fruit attractive for direct-market sales
NY 414-1 Liberty x "MacSpur" McIntosh. A scab-resistant apple from Cornell/Geneva breeding program. A good scab-resistant variety at best, NY 75414-1 has been widely tested and gained a following in some circles, however, you either like it or you hate it. Rumor has it that Cornell/Geneva is currently considering naming this one.
SPIGOLD Golden Delicious x Red Spy; New York, 1962. Harvest: early to mid-October, Season: November-January. Description: Large golden yellow fruit, 75% covered with bright red stripes. Tender skin. Fine grained firm crisp yellow flesh, sprightly and sweet. Stores well. Displays some resistance to fireblight. Tree Characteristics: Important to train early into spreading shape. Tendency toward biennial bearing.
SWEET SIXTEEN Large, red striped fruit. Firm, crisp, aromatic flesh; moderately acidic. Tree Characteristics: Tolerant to scab, and fireblight after the early years. Early annual bearing, hardy and vigorous tree. Tastes like a cherry Twizzler.
WEALTHY Parentage/Origin: Unknown x Duchess; Minnesota, 1861. Excellent dessert and multi-use apple, picked a few weeks early for cooking. Beautiful fruit ripens to bright red across the surface. Crisp, juicy flesh. Refreshing, sprightly, vinous flavor. Tree Characteristics: Long blooming period makes it a good pollinator. Heavy and early producer. Tends toward biennial bearing.
WAGENER Parentage/Origin: New York, 1790s. One of the best late fall varieties for dessert, sauce, cider, juice and storage. Doesn't shrivel. Medium sized, glossy green, red flushed fruit. White flesh, very crisp, juicy and tender, resembles Northern Spy in taste. Tree Characteristics: Hardy, scab resistant tree bears well and heavily. Thinning necessary to produce large fruit.
ZESTAR! University of Minnesota. Large, crunchy, juicy red fruit with a sprightly sweet-tart flavor. Excellent for both fresh eating and cooking. The fruit will store for 6 to 8 weeks. Tree is vigorous, upright, interesting. Disease susceptibility profile: scab susceptible, but significant resistance to cedar apple rust, powdery mildew, sooty blotch, fly speck, and fireblight. Introduced in 1999. Ripens late August to early September.